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"As early as 1871, Frederick Douglas ridiculed the idea of racial quotas, arguing that they would promote an'image of blacks as privileged wards of the state'" (O'Conner, pp. 216).Affirmative action is viewed either as reverse discrimination or compensation for past mistakes.It allows under qualified minorities to take the place of more deserving majorities.Affirmative action has been thought of as the only way to ensure a diverse student body when in reality all it is doing is lowering the intelligence level of universities and companies by allowing people who are not capable to contribute.
In the case of Gratz vs. Bollinger the Supreme Court ruled that such and act was unconstitutional.Petitioners Gratz and Hamacher, both of whom are Michigan residents and Caucasian, applied for admission to the University of Michigan's (University) College of Literature, Science, and the Arts (LSA) in 1995 and 1997, respectively.Although the LSA considered Gratz to be well qualified and Hamacher to be within the qualified range, both were denied early admission and were ultimately denied admission" (Gratz, pp.1).The University's Office of Undergraduate Admissions (OUA) "considers a number of factors in making admissions decisions, including…race" (Gratz, pp.1).The University will admit all qualified applicants from African American, Hispanic, and Native American backgrounds giving them 20 of the 100 points needed for admissions.Petitioners filed this class action stating that the University's use of racial preferences violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteen Amendment.Chief Justice Rehnquist delivered the opinion of the court which states, "we find that the manner in which the University considers the race of applicants in its undergraduate admissions guidelines violates these constitutional and statutory provisions" (Gratz, pp.6) decided in June of…